Julia Schucht (Юлия ГАполлоновна Шухт, Julija Apollonovna ukht) was born on 19 September 1896 in Geneva to Apollon and Julia Grigor'evna Hirfel'd. She moved with her family first to Montpellier in 1903, and then to Rome in 1908. From 1910 to 1913, she was given Italian lessons by Nilde Perilli, a classmate of her sister Eugenia. She enrolled in the Santa Cecilia musical secondary school, attending Ettore Pinelli's courses and receiving numerous commendations; she took her diploma in violin in 1915. Immediately thereafter, she returned to Russia, going to live with her sister Asja in Ivanovo-Voznesensk. There she began to teach violin at the local music school until 1921, although in late 1919 she relocated with her parents to uja. In September 1917, she joined the Bolshevik Party, engaged as an instructor in the local section, and in September 1922, on the occasion of a visit to her sister Eugenia hospitalized at the Serebrjanij Bor sanatorium, she met Antonio Gramsci. In mid-October, she served as Gramsci's interpreter on his visit to Ivanovo-Voznesensk as a member of the Presidium of the Communist International. She spent New Year's with him and her sister Eugenia at the Serebrjanij Bor sanatorium. In the autumn of 1923, she relocated to Moscow to work for the Moscow Raikom (the Party's organization at the district level).
On 10 August 1924, she had her first son, Delio. Dating to this same period is her hiring in the internal security services (NKVD).
She saw Gramsci again in March 1925, in Moscow on the occasion of the proceedings of the Fifth Executive of the Communist International. In October 1925, with Eugenia and her son Delio, she joined Gramsci in Rome, living with her sisters at Via Trapani and working at the Soviet Embassy. In the summer of 1926 she left Italy for good, while pregnant with her second son, Giuliano, who was born in Moscow on 31 August. In 1927, she contracted a viral illness that is likely to have been at the origin of her epilepsy.
In 1928, she spent a period of hospitalization with Camilla Ravera, at the Mar'ino rest home in the Barâtinskih residence (90 km from Moscow), and in 1930 had to leave her work at the NKVD for health reasons. In August that same year, she met Piero Sraffa, who was travelling in the Soviet Union with Maurice Dobb.
In 1932, she began to work, at the suggestion of the physicians who had cared for her, at the organization of the city's kindergarten.
Upon Gramsci's death, she took action to recover his correspondence and writings that had remained in Italy. In February 1939, she joined the "Committee for the literary heritage of Comrade Gramsci" instituted by the Comintern Executive.
After the War, she continued living with her sister Eugenia in Moscow, with whom she relocated in 1968 to a home for elderly Bolsheviks in Peredelkino, where she died on 21 June 1980.