The Antonio Gramsci's Archive has been held at Fondazione Gramsci since late 1954.
The recovery of the papers produced by the Sardinian leader had already begun in the aftermath of his arrest on 8 November 1926, when his sister-in-law saw to the retrieval of Gramsci's writings still kept at the house at Via Morgagni 25 in Roma. These documents, including the manuscript on the Southern Question and the preparatory studies for the party school's lecture notes, were presumably entrusted to the Russian Embassy in Rome; from here, most likely via the diplomatic channel, they were sent to the party's foreign Centre in Paris, and then on to Moscow. However, it has not been possible to reconstruct the path followed by these papers, the date of their return to Italy, or their introduction into the nucleus of documents attributed to Gramsci.
After Gramsci's death on 27 April 1937, Tatiana took delivery of the Notebooks, the correspondence he received during his years in prison, and the administrative documentation relating to his detention (canteen booklets, receipts for books sent by the Sperling & Kupfer bookshop). In addition to this corpus was Gramsci's handwritten correspondence in Tatiana's possession and not sent - as was customary - to Moscow. The Notebooks were immediately placed in safe-keeping at the Embassy and, pending all the material being sent to Julia as per Gramsci's wishes, Tatiana began compiling an initial list of subjects dealt with in them. To initiate the recovery of all her husband's writings held by her sister in Rome, on 3 May 1937 Julia wrote to the People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs and to Deputy Commissar Potemkin. Togliatti also urged that the documentation be sent quickly to the USSR, and, on 11 June 1937, asked Manuilsky, the Soviet party's representative in Comintern, to have Gramsci's writings transferred. Meanwhile, on 5 July 1937, Tatiana sent her sister, via diplomatic channels, "Antonio's manuscripts." The rest of the documentation, on the other hand, was sent in several tranches until December 1938, when Tania returned to Moscow after thirty years spent in Italy. This documentation was integrated with that conserved by the Schucht family in Moscow: the pre-prison letters from 1922 to 1926 and the handwritten letters from prison that Tatiana had sent from Italy. The proceedings of the "Commission for the literary inheritance of Antonio Gramsci," set up at the order of Comintern to determine Gramsci's book and document legacy, began on 25 February 1939. In the meantime, the recovery of other originals had begun, including a handwritten notebook drawn up by Togliatti containing the list of Gramsci's letters that comprised not only those to Julia and Tania, but also 11 letters sent to Vincenzo Bianco during the Viennese period and 5 sent to Giuseppe Berti during 1927-1928. On 23 December 1940, the Comintern Secretariat established a Gramsci holding at its own archives and transferred into it all the papers in the Schucht family's possession.
In May 1941, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union, it became necessary to transfer all of Comintern's offices, including the archive, to Ufa. Fearing that Gramsci's manuscripts would be lost, in the spring of 1941 Giulia Schucht delivered all of Gramsci's materials in her possession, and Tatiana's letters, to Vincenzo Bianco; he in turn transported them to Ufa where the rest of the documentation was also being kept. The papers returned to Moscow most likely in late 1943 - also due to the continued requests from Togliatti who was working on their publication - and were kept in the archive of the Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute. From Moscow, the papers were sent to Italy in a number of instalments: the manuscripts of the Notebooks were delivered to Togliatti by the Soviet Ambassador in Rome on 3 March 1945. Meanwhile, the letters and other documents were delivered on 10 December 1946 to the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party, and from there, on 12 December, all the materials in Gramsci's personal archive were sent to Dekanozov, the Deputy People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, and then delivered to Togliatti personally. Another instalment is confirmed by Paolo Robotti's letter of 13 January 1947 to Togliatti, announcing "yet another shipment of materials on Gramsci". All the materials were lodged with the PCI Directorate, which had now been established at Via delle Botteghe Oscure. These also included Tatiana's letters to Gramsci and the correspondence he received. On 21 October 1948, the PCI Secretariat decided to create a facility to house all the documentation relating to Gramsci's work and thought. Towards this end, April 1950 saw the inauguration of Fondazione Gramsci, to which the PCI Secretariat had already donated the library's volumes a month earlier. However, no reference was made to any acquisition and conservation of the writings. On 30 December 1954, Ambrogio Donini, director of Istituto Gramsci, informed the Party Secretariat that he had received a portion of the Gramsci documents, with the exception of the manuscripts of the Notebooks and the letters which "are still in the safe in the administrative office of the PCI Directorate," and suggested transmitting this material to a safer location. The recommendation was evidently heeded: on 28 March 1955, in a letter to Luigi Longo, Donini announced having placed the originals of the Notebooks and the letters in a safe deposit box at Banca Nazionale del Lavoro in Rome. In 1963, all the documents - except for Tatiana's letters to Gramsci - were lodged definitively at Istituto Gramsci. Upon the final placement of Gramsci's papers, the works began to recover all the writings he produced and received, both during his youthful years and those in prison. With a view to publishing a new edition of the prison letters, Togliatti, with the collaboration of Elsa Fubini, made an effort to recover the documentary material held by Gramsci's original family: both by his brother Carlo in Milan and by his sister Teresina in Ghilarza. On 24 June 1963, Carlo Gramsci sent Togliatti a portion of the documents in his possession. These were 26 photocopied letters from Gramsci to his mother, Carlo, and Grazietta, from June 1924 to December 1932. Added to these were 10 original documents: the physics notebook, 3 book cards from the Ghilarza library, the papers related to his hospitalization at the Cusumano clinic in Formia and the Quisisana clinic in Rome, and the receipts for his funeral expenses. In January 1964, Togliatti informed Elsa Fubini that Tatiana's letters to Gramsci had remained in his possession; however, we do not know the date of their inclusion in the Gramsci letter collection. On 4 April 1968, Teresina Gramsci donated the typewritten transcriptions of Gramsci's letters to the family during the period from 1908 to 1913, relating to his secondary-school and university years. The recovery of certain letters during his university years addressed to Gramsci by Angelo Tasca, Cesare Berger, and Giovanni Vittorio Amoretti is also likely to date to the 1960s. The family donations were followed, in July 1974, by that of Piero Sraffa, who delivered to Elsa Fubini the originals of the 4 letters in his possession, handwritten from 1924 to 1927. In December 1981, Giuliano Gramsci gave the Istituto 5 letters from Gramsci to Tatiana, Julia, and Delio, relating to the years 1927-1930. The recovery of the Gramsci documentation also continued in the 1990s. In 1994, following research by Silvio Pons, copied documents originating from the various holdings of Rossijskij Gosudarstvennyj Archiv Sotsial'no-Politiceskoj Istorii (RGASPI, Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History) were deposited at Fondazione Gramsci. In particular, new letters in the correspondence between Gramsci and the members of the PCd'I for the years 1922-1926 were discovered. Also retrieved from RGASPI holding 519 were 4 letters handwritten by Gramsci to Tatiana in 1933 (3 in August and one in October) and the transcription of a June 1930 letter to Gennaro Gramsci. In 1999, Diddi Paulesu, Gramsci's nephew and heir to the papers kept by Teresina, delivered the photographic reproductions of 53 of Gramsci's letters to family members from 1908 to 1933, 20 letters from Gramsci's family members and classmates - including Eraldo Marica, Ignazio Deidda, and Agostino Careddu - and some documents relating to his school years. In 2005, Mimma Paulesu Quercioli donated to the Foundation the originals of 85 letters handwritten by Gramsci from 1924 to 1933, and a postcard from Angelo Tasca dating to 1912. In July 2005 and March 2006, Antonio Gramsci Jr., Giuliano's son, donated the original of an initial portion of the documents kept at his home in Moscow, which were followed by digital copies in May 2007 and May 2008. The new documentation, thanks to which above all Tatiana's correspondence with the family members could be reconstructed, also allowed gaps in the Gramsci letter collection to be filled with the inclusion of 46 letters received by Gramsci during his prison years. Three more letters by Gramsci from 1927-1928, albeit only photocopies, were discovered among the papers of Elsa Fubini, the archive's long-time curator.
During the 2022, the heirs of the Scotti family donated three themes wrote by Gramsci in 1911.
 Cfr. Tatiana's letter to the family, December 1926 in T. Schucht, Lettere ai familiari, ed. Mimma Paulesu Quercioli, Roma, Editori riuniti, 1991, p. 22.
 Cfr. Ruggero Grieco's letter to Camilla Ravera, January 1927 in A. Gramsci-T. Schucht, Lettere 1926-1935, ed. A. Natoli and C. Daniele, Torino, Einaudi, 1997, pp. 25-26.
 The letter is published in Italian translation by P. Spriano, L'ultima ricerca, Roma, "L'Unità" editrice, 1988, p. 32.
 FG, AAG, Gramsci dopo la morte.
 Cfr. G. Gramsci, Ricordo di Tatiana, in T. Schucht, Lettere ai familiari, cit., p. XVIIII.
 The Commission's materials are in RGASPI, holding 519, repository 1, file 114.
 This notebook, whose exact compilation date is unknown, is fully reproduced in Togliatti editore di Gramsci, ed. C. Daniele, Roma, Carocci, Fondazione Istituto Gramsci, Annale XIII, 2005, pp. 233-88.
 APC, Internazionale comunista, Comitato centrale del Pcus (17), inv. 128, fasc. 42.
 Ibidem, fasc. 966.
 FG, AAG, Gramsci dopo la morte.
 In 1954, the Fondazione was transformed into an Istituto, and the director was joined by a management board. In 1982, the Istituto was made a Fondazione legally recognized by the State.
 FG, AAG, Gramsci dopo la morte.
 FG, AAG, Gramsci dopo la morte.
Latest update February 2023.